Various Routes of Administration for Animals
A route of administration is the way and path by which a drug is taken into the body. For animals, veterinarians perform several ways of injection such as intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous administration, among others. There are good ways to make drugs reach affected body parts speedily, however, these often are accompanied by pain. Animals, as well as humans, feel and dislike pain, therefore administrating drugs without pain is required. That is why oral administrations to put tablets or powder formed drugs into an animal’s mouth directly or to orally give drugs mixed with drinking water or feed are frequently used. However, animals often do not prefer oral drugs owing to tastes, and furthermore, it is more difficult to orally administer drugs when animals have no appetite or feel like vomiting. By the way, transdermal drugs including spray-ons and spot- ons for deterrence of fleas and ticks for dogs and cats have been developed. Pour-on administration to control internal and external parasite infections was an innovative means to drop the preparation on the backs of cattle while they pass through a narrow passage, compared with a previous means of administration which was time-consuming to handle. Furthermore, there are ophthalmic solutions and collunarium for infectious diseases. Both subcutaneous implants which are put under the skin to deliver drugs for a long period and rumen boluses which are implanted orally and settle in the reticulum (second stomach) of cattle are also known.
Besides, some chicken pox live vaccines are injected into the membrane of the wing. An acaricides for external parasites in earmarks of cattle are spread through touch among cattle. Feed-through fly control is a way in which cattle are given a growth inhibitor for flies mixed into their feed, and results in effective labor saving. A preparation which is less toxic and has no absorption into the intestine is adapted as a matter of course.
The development of drugs makes us imagine new drugs including new ingredients, however, the development of administration routes which ease animal pain and contribute to labor saving are also considered an important theme.